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Ravencraft鸦语—翻译组:生物学家眼中的鲈鱼感官(下)

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本帖最后由 Ravencraft鸦语 于 2020-5-18 11:15 编辑

(接上文)
03丨味觉和嗅觉
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There is no doubt that bass rely heavily on their eyesight and lateral line for survival, but do scent and taste play a role as well? A lot of lure companies have certainly based their products on the fact that their stinky baits will catch more fish than the average competitor. However, bass are sight predators for the most part, so should you really be concerned if your lure smells or tastes good?
毫无疑问,鲈鱼很大程度上靠它们的视觉和侧线生存,但是是否嗅觉味觉也起着一定的作用呢?许多拟饵品牌都把自己的产品建立在其特殊气味(可能腥臭)的拟饵比市面上其他竞争者的产品能带来更多钓获的基础之上。可是鲈鱼在很大程度上靠视力来猎食,那你还需要关心你的拟饵是否闻起来或者尝起来味道不错呢?

You bet ... though at times it may be more important thanothers.
当然!有的时候气味可能比其他的还重要。

Although the olfactory (odor-detecting) portion of the bass’ brain isn’t quite as large or well defined as a typical scent feeder like a catfish, they can smell, and scent does play a role in their feeding. Like with sound, fish are able to detect smells underwater far greater then the average human can in air.
虽然鲈鱼大脑中嗅觉的部分,没有比如鲶鱼之类典型的“嗅觉捕食者”大,它们还是有嗅觉的。因此气味在它们的感观中还是起着一定的作用的。和声音类似,鱼类在水中探测气味的能力比人类在空气中探测气味的能力强许多。

While smell may dissipate quickly for humans in the surrounding atmosphere, it lingers much longer in water, and a fish can detect odors in far smaller quantities. Some fish, like salmon, can even smell their home stream from miles away, using scents as faint as one part per million to navigate to the same spawning stream where they were hatched.
气味对人类来说,在空气中消散的很快;然而在水中气味可以维持的时间要长的多。鱼在水中探测气味的能力也远超人类。有些鱼,比如三文鱼(大马哈鱼、鲑鱼)甚至可以在几英里之外闻到它们家乡小溪的味道,依靠气味,他们一路洄游几百公里一直回到它们被孵化出来的那条小溪里产卵(因大马哈鱼的鱼卵只能在淡水中存活)。

Bass aren’t quite as perceptive (at least we don’t think so). However, like most fish, bass have nostrils on either side of the head. These nostrils contain an olfactory rosette that detects odorous chemicals and transmits them to the brain for translation. When visibility is poor, this ability to smell prey becomes much more important for survival. However, even when visibility is good, a finicky bass may be more enticed with a sweet smelling morsel than one that has no other special appeal.
鲈鱼的感官并没有那么敏感(起码我们认为是这样的)但是,和其他大部分鱼一样,鲈鱼在头部的两侧也有鼻孔。鼻腔内的嗅囊探测有气味的化学物质,并传输到大脑中进行转译。当能见度低的时候,这种对猎物的嗅觉能力对他们的生存变得更加重要。即便能见度很好,相对于那些没什么特别吸引力的猎物,一条小心谨慎的鲈鱼显然会更愿意对那些散发着美妙气味的猎物大张其口。

So fish can smell, but can they taste what they eat? They certainly can, and in many fish the taste buds are quite developed. Like in humans, most fish have taste buds around the inside of the mouth and on the tongue. However, there are some fish that take their sense of taste to a whole new level. Obviously, catfish are among the most specialized. Their bar buless(whiskers) are loaded with taste buds, allowing them to determine if they want to eat a morsel just by brushing it with their whiskers.
因此鲈鱼是有嗅觉的,那它们能否感知自己食物的味道呢?显然可以,而且许多鱼类的味蕾相当发达。和人类一样,许多鱼都在口腔内和舌头上有味蕾。而有些鱼的味觉异常发达。显然,鲶鱼就是其中的佼佼者。它们的触须中含有味蕾,它们只要用触须触碰某个物体,就能决定是否要吃掉它。
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Bass don’t have barbules, and when you think about the differences between catfish and bass, you can understand why they don’t need them. As we have already discussed, bass are sight predators and use their vision as the primary sensory tool to locate and capture prey. Catfish, on the other hand, don’t see as well and have to rely on their highly developed sense of smell and taste to locate food. Although a bass doesn’t rely as heavily on taste as a catfish, flavor still plays a role in a bass’ feeding activity.
鲈鱼没有触须,你仔细想想鲈鱼和鲶鱼的差别,你就会明白为什么鲈鱼不需要触须。如我们上文所探讨的那样,鲈鱼是“视觉捕食者”,他们主要依靠自己的视力来定位和捕捉猎物。而鲶鱼则大不相同,他们的视力很差,他们不得不靠高度发达的嗅觉和味觉来觅食。鲈鱼虽然不像鲶鱼那样依赖味觉,但是味觉显然在鲈鱼的猎食行动中也发挥着作用。

So, as an angler, how does knowing about a bass’ sense of taste help you to catch more fish? Obviously, hard baits generally have immediate hooking ability with the standard treble hook configurations. However, bass have an opportunity to inhale a soft plastic and scrutinize it a bit more. They can sometimes do it so subtly that you don’t even know they have it. If they don’t like the way it feels or tastes in their mouth, they can just as quickly spit it back out. If you’re getting a lot of hits on your favorite soft plastic, but there’s nothing there at the hook set, you might want to experiment with flavored scent sprays. That’s all it may take to get them to hold it a second or two longer and allow you to connect next time.
因此,作为钓鱼人,了解了鲈鱼的味觉之后怎么利用它来增加我们的钓获呢?显然,硬饵因为装着三本钩有着直接的着钩能力。而软饵,鲈鱼则可能突然一口吸入嘴里尝尝味道。有时候这样的动作非常微妙,你甚至感觉不到它们已经这么做了。如果它们觉得这饵感觉不好,或者味道奇怪,就会马上吐饵。如果你在做钓的过程中遇到很多咬口,扬竿之后却一无所获,你也许就应该仔细检查检查饵的味道。只要味道对了,鲈鱼能把饵在嘴里含一秒钟或者两秒种,你就肯定能在下一次的杨竿中刺中它。

The bottom line is that bass can smell and taste. It may not be as important for an angler as lure selection or presentation, but it could mean the difference between catching a limit and being skunked.
总而言之,鲈鱼是有嗅觉和味觉的。虽然这对于一个钓手来说,不足以成为拟饵选择或者拟饵呈现的依据,但有时候这其中的差别,可能就意味着是钓获成功还是凄惨打龟。


原文作者:Chris Horton
翻译:土拨鼠
校对:RAVEN意为乌鸦


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