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Ravencraft鸦语—翻译组:生物学家眼中的鲈鱼感观(上)

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本帖最后由 Ravencraft鸦语 于 2020-5-18 11:11 编辑

A Biologist`s Look at Bass Senses
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本文是由原自由之路版主“土拨鼠”先生上传于翻译组板块的经典文章,由鸦语团队同原自由之路负责人协商后刊登转载。为保障阅读准确,本文采用中英文对照形式,如涉及英文版权将及时更正。

Ever wonder how bass see, hear and feel in their world? So do we! That's why we asked a fisheries biologist to give us the real scoop. In this series, we'll explore the senses of bass (Micropterus sp.) and how they relate to their environment.  
您想知道在鲈鱼的世界里,他们是怎么看、怎么听、和怎么感觉的吗?我们也想知道!所以我们请教了一位鱼类生物学家,让他给我们提一些专业的意见——在本系列文章中,我们将一起探索鲈鱼的感官以及他们与环境的依存关系。

Although not quite capable of cognitive thought like you or I, they didn't reach the top of the freshwater food chain by being slackers. Their senses have been refined over millennia, allowing them to become one of the most sought after, wily game fish in the freshwater environment.
或许不太像你我的认知那样,因为生性懒惰,鲈鱼并没有列位在淡水食物链的顶端。它们的感官在几千年的时间里不断进化,这使它们成为淡水环境中人们争相追逐的、诡计多端的垂钓对象鱼。

To truly appreciate this exceptional predator, you need to know how they see, hear, feel, smell and taste. Doing so will result in a more frequent, up-close and personal look at North America's most prominent fish on the end of your line.
要真正剖析这非同寻常的猎食者,你就必须了解它们的视觉、听觉、触觉、嗅觉和味觉。这样的话你才能更加了解在你钓线另一端的这种北美最主要的淡水鱼。


01丨鲈鱼的视觉

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Sight is probably the most important sense of the bass genus. I say "probably" because most of the research on bass to date has focused on population management, life history, predator/prey interactions, reproductive biology, etc., rather than specific physiological characteristics. However, we do know enough about similar species — and bass in general — to draw some conclusions.
视觉大概是鲈科鱼类最重要是感官了。我说“大概”,是因为目前针对鲈鱼的研究,基本上都集中在种群管理、猎食/猎物互动关系、繁殖生物学等等,而少有特别针对鲈鱼生理特征的研究。尽管如此,我们依然对类似物种——鲈科鱼类,在整体上有着一些了解,足以帮助我们得出某些结论。

To understand the commitment to sight in the bass species, one needs look no further than the fish's brain. The ocular lobe of the bass is huge, relatively speaking. This means that the fish invests much of its neurological resources in its ability to see.
要了解视力对鲈科鱼类的重要性,就必须深入了解鲈鱼的大脑。鲈鱼的眼叶相对来说,数量巨大,这意味着它将自身大量的神经系统资源投资在了自己的视觉上。

Anecdotal evidence seems to confirm what scientists see in a lab. In perpetually turbid or dingy waters, bass struggle to grow to trophy size, even if the waters are fairly productive. Why? They can't see well enough to find adequate prey. That's nothing new to the average bass angler. But, what do bass really see? To understand that, we must look at the eye structure itself.
经验之谈往往证实着科学家们在实验室里的得出的研究结论。在昏暗肮脏的水里,即便并不缺乏食物,鲈鱼总是很难长到可观的尺寸,为什么呢?因为他们在浑浊的水里无法看得足够清楚以捕获充足的食物。这对大部分的鲈鱼钓手来说并不是什么新鲜事。然而,鲈鱼真正能看到的是什么呢?为了弄清这个问题,我们必须首先了解鲈鱼的眼球结构本身。
3.jpg
They have bulbous, protruding eyes positioned on both sides of the head that enable them to see a much wider field of view than you or I can see. Basically, their only blind spots are directly below and behind them.
球根将凸起的眼球置于头部的两侧,这使得鲈鱼拥有非常宽阔的视野,比人类的视野宽阔许多。基本上来说,它们仅有的盲区,只是身体的正下方和正后方。

However, much of that sight is monocular, rather than binocular. What's the significance? In order to focus on an object and truly get a good view, both eyes have to see it simultaneously. That means the bass has to be facing the object to discern the true shape and distance, and even then, it has to be pretty close. They may be able to detect motion on one side or the other, but they don't truly understand what they are seeing until they position themselves so that both eyes are peering in the same direction.
然而,鲈鱼的大部分视野都是单眼而非双眼的。这样有何意义呢?为了聚焦某个物上,并获得该物体的清晰视觉,两只眼睛必须同时看到这个物体才行!这意味着鲈鱼必须面对这个物体,才能准确识别该物体的外形和距离,并且要在非常近的距离内才行。它们也许可以在某一侧感知某个物体的动作,但是要想真正理解它所看到的是什么,就不得不让自己正对该物体,以便两只眼睛可以注视这相同的方向。
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Now for the most popular question we biologists get about bass vision, do bass see color? Without a doubt, yes! Not unlike humans, bass have cellular structures in the retina called cones and rods. Rods allow an animal to see black, gray and white in low-light conditions, while cones allow an animal to see color. The exact kind and quantity of cones in bass is uncertain, but the plentiful existence of cones, along with related research, indicates that color selection can be important, depending on the conditions.
现在我们生物学家最常被问到的关于鲈鱼视觉的问题是, 鲈鱼可以识别颜色吗?毫无疑问,当然可以!与人类无异,鲈鱼的视网膜上也有着细胞结构——视锥和视杆。视杆使动物能在弱光条件下看到黑色、灰色和白色;而视锥则使动物能够分辨颜色。鲈鱼视网膜上到底有多少种类和数量的视锥细胞还不得而知,但是相关的研究表明,鲈鱼眼内存在丰富的视锥细胞。这意味着在不同的情况下,拟饵颜色的选择是非常重要的。
5.jpg
眼球结构参考图

Color is a product of light. Light is both absorbed and refracted by water, and the shorter the wavelength, the deeper the color can penetrate. In clear water, the blue end of the spectrum is visible at the deepest depths, while the red end is absorbed more quickly.
颜色是光的产物。水能吸收光,也能反射光,波长越短,相应的颜色穿透力就越强。在清澈的水中,蓝光在最深处依然可见,而红光则更快的被吸收。
(注解:不同波长的光能量不同,波长越大,能量越小。对人眼来说,从780毫微米~380毫微米为可见光谱,不同波长的可见光在人眼中产生不同的颜色。红光的波长在620~750毫微米;蓝光的波长在476~495毫微米)

However, the clarity of the water also plays a role. If there is a strong algal bloom, or the water is muddy from a recent rain, light behaves differently. In these conditions, colors that contrast with the surrounding water will be noticed more quickly. At night, bass rely on their retinal rods, just as we do, to see shadows and movement. During new moons, there isn't a lot of ambient light in the water, and it dissipates quickly with depth. In these conditions, darker lures have more contrast and can be seen better. On bright, moonlit nights where more light penetrates, more lure colors will be visible to a bass.
然而,水的清浊度也起着重要的作用。如果水中藻类繁多,或者由于降雨导致浑水,光的表现又会不一样了。在这样的情况下,与周围环境反差大的颜色会更快的被注意到。在夜晚,鲈鱼靠它们视网膜上的视杆来看物体的阴影和运动,这一点和人类一样。新月时,水中的背景光并不多,且随着深度很快就消散了。在这种情况下,深色的拟饵有着更大的反差,被鲈鱼看见的可能性也更高。满月时,月光明亮,射入水中的光线充足,此时鲈鱼能看到的颜色也更多。

Bass can see color. Paying attention to color can make the difference between a curious follow and a definitive attempt to eat your lure.
鲈鱼可以看见颜色。更多的注意到颜色的选择,将决定鲈鱼只是好奇的跟饵还是毫不犹豫的就饵!


02丨听觉和触觉在鲈鱼的世界里是密不可分的!
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Perhaps the second most important sense for bass is both hearing and feeling. Wait, isn’t that two senses? Well, for a fish, they’re very closely related. In order to understand how a fish hears and feels underwater, we need a quick refresher on physics.
对鲈鱼来说,第二重要的感官可能就是听觉触觉了。等等,听觉和触觉不是两种感觉吗?呃,是的,但是对鱼来说,二者密不可分。为了理解鱼在水中是如何听和如何感觉的,我们需要快速的温习以下物理学的知识。
7.jpg
You see, sound is nothing more than energy traveling through a medium. The medium could be a solid, liquid or gas, but there must be the presence of mass in order for sound to travel. When you beat a drum, some of the energy from striking the drum surface is transferred to the air around it via vibrations of the surrounding air particles. These vibrations are passed along to the next particles of air, then the next and next and so on until it reaches your ear, where the vibrating particles cause your ear’s tympanic membrane to vibrate, which your brain interprets as sound.
声音其实就是能量(震动)在介质中的传播。这介质可以是固体、液体或者气体,但声音的传播必须靠介质,真空状态下声音是无法传播的。当你击鼓的时候,敲击在鼓面的能量通过震动传导到它周围的空气原子中,这些波动由空气中一层一层的原子传递开来,一直传递到你的耳朵,引起耳膜的震动,而大脑则把这种震动转译成声音。

Sound travels about five times faster in water than it does in air, and about five times faster again in a solid like steel. The denser the medium, the more particles there are to vibrate and the faster energy can be passed from one particle to another.
声音在水中的传递速度是它在空气中传播速度的五倍,而在固体中,比如钢,的传播速度又比它在水中的速度再快5倍。介质的密度越高,被震动的原子就越多,能量在原子之间的传递速度也就越快。

Now, back to what this means for bass. Water is already much more efficient at transferring sounds than air, so bass — and fish in general — are able to detect sounds more quickly and efficiently than humans. But how do they do it? They obviously don’t have ears … or do they?
好,现在我们回来探讨这些对鲈鱼意味着什么。既然声音在水中的传播速度要比在空气中的传播快许多,所以鲈鱼——或者基本上所有的鱼类——都比人类能更快更高效的感知声音。但是,他们是如何做到的呢?显然他们并没有耳朵…… 或者他们是有还是没有呢?

Although they don’t have external oratory canals, bass do have internal ears that allow them to hear sound in the water, just as we do in air. Their inner ear also serves to help orient them in the water, just as our inner ear helps us to maintain our balance by telling our brain which way we are leaning.
虽然他们没有外耳道,但鲈鱼的内耳使他们在水中能听见声音,这和我们能在空气中听见声音一样。鲈鱼的内耳同时也帮助他们在水中确定方向,就像我们的内耳时刻把身体的倾斜方向告诉大脑以帮助我们保持平衡一样。

However, fish take hearing underwater a step further. Bass, like most freshwater fish, have an additional sensory organ for their underwater environment — the lateral line. Now, I’m not talking about the long, wide black color blotches that run down the side of a largemouth or spotted bass.
然而,鱼类在水下把听觉发挥的更加极致。鲈鱼,与大多数淡水鱼类一样,为适应水下环境的需要,都有一个额外的感觉器官——侧线。我现在讨论的并不是鲈鱼体侧的长条大块的黑色斑纹。
8.jpg
The lateral line is a series of pores or canals in a rowof scales that stretch from just behind the gill plate to nearly the tail in abass. They are perceptible, but you have to look closely. These canals containa series of cells that have hair-like extensions surrounded by a gelatinoussubstance, together called neuromasts. Vibrations from surrounding water on oneor more of these groups of cells send a signal to the bass’ brain that — alongwith the same effects on the inner ear — it interprets as sound.
侧线埋在鱼体两侧鳞片下,内呈钩状或管状,由筛盖一直延伸到接近鱼尾。鱼的侧线是可以看见的,但需要您近距离观察。测线管内充满粘液,而类似毛发一样的神经丘则浸润在粘液中。当鱼体周边的水流冲击身体时,水压通过侧线管进入,传递与粘液,粘液的流动作用于神经丘再传递至鲈鱼的大脑——这种感觉和鲈鱼内耳的感应一起——就被大脑转译为声音。

So how do bass feel? They obviously don’t have digits with extra sensitive nerves under their skin as we do. However, like with sound, the system of neuromasts in the lateral line can also sense the slightest changes in water pressure. When another fish swims by, the resulting difference in water pressure from the moving fish travels to the bass in waves. When the hair-like structures in the nueromasts are bent in a certain direction from the resulting wave pressure, they tell the bass not only what happened, but where in relation to the bass’ position and in what direction the movement occurred.
然后,鲈鱼是怎么感觉的呢?显然它们不像我们一样有手指,有皮肤下超敏感的神经。但是,和他们处理声音一样,侧线中的神经丘系统能够感知最轻微的水压变化。当一条鱼游过的时候,游动的那条鱼产生的水波传导到周边的其他鱼身上,带来水压的变化。于是神经丘中类似毛发的结构(纤毛)因为水压的变化而向某个方向出现一定弯曲的时候,神经丘不仅会告诉鲈鱼周边发生了什么,还能告诉鲈鱼水波传来的准确方位。
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Pretty amazing, isn’t it? The lateral line not only allows fish to hear underwater, but it enables them to feel what is going on in the neighborhood.
非常神奇,对吧?侧线不仅让鱼在水下“听见”,也同时让它能够“感觉”到周边发生的一切。

Anybody that’s ever ripped a lipless crank bait through the grass knows that sound travels very well in water, as evidenced by the rapid ticking noise emanating through the bottom of the boat as you sweep the lure. On days when bass are reacting to the bait without much scrutiny, or when the water conditions and light are such that they can’t see it very well, aloud lure certainly gets their attention.
不管是谁,只要你曾经把VIB从水草中扯出来过,你一定明白声音在水中传递的很好。因为当你在船上抽竿的时候,声音马上就通过水传到了你的船底。在那些鲈鱼活性高不怎么挑饵的时候,或者鲈鱼因为水混或者光线昏暗而看不太清楚的时候,一个声音大的拟饵显然更能引起他们的注意!

However, even if you’re fishing a good ol’ Texas-rigged worm without any rattles, rest assured that if you get it close to a bass, it’ll know where it is, even if it can’t see it.
不过,即便你用一个没响珠的德州钓组,如果你的饵离鲈鱼足够近,即便它看不见,它也一样知道饵在哪里。

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哗啦”掌声像潮水一样涌来。人们沸腾了!为这激情而振奋人心的演讲欢呼,鼓掌。大家都用力地拍着,掌声经久不息,在论坛里回响。
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